Cancer biomarkers are soluble factors that are secreted by cancer cells, altered proteins retained by cancer cells or mutated genes in the cancer cells. These biomarkers may be produced by the cancer tissue itself or by other cells in the body in response to cancer and can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumour tissue or other tissues or bodily fluids. One thing to be noted is that, these biomarkers are not only limited to cancer. These tumour markers are used in diagnosing cancer but, more importantly, they provide information on the prognosis of the cancer and helps the clinician in determining appropriate treatment.
Cancer biomarkers generally include:
Extra copies of genes
- Track 1-1 Biomarkers that trigger cells to grow and multiply abnormally
- Track 2-2 Biomarkers that support a treatmentâ€™s cellular or molecular action
- Track 3-3 Biomarkers that disrupt a treatmentâ€™s cellular or molecular action