Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Cancer is a term for diseases where a group of abnormal cells divide rapidly and invade the nearby tissues. These cancer cells spread to other parts through blood and lymph systems and this process is called as metastasis. Cancer being the 2nd most leading cause of death in the U.S, advancements and knowledge gained in the field has led to new potential research and discoveries.

  • Cancer cell biology

  • Tumour biology

  • Cancer Causes

  • Oncogenes

  • Cell growth

  • Anti-Oncogenes (Tumour Suppressor genes)

  • Pathology

  • Carcinogenesis

  • Angiogenesis

  • Tumour markers

  • Apoptosis

  • Genetics

  • Tumour growth

  • Treatment

Cancer diagnosis is an imperative area which involves tests and procedures to confirm the presence of disease and identify the correct tumour type, location, extent and stage. Cancer diagnostic team includes physicians across many medical specialties, including radiologists, pathologists and geneticists who have expertise in using advanced, minimally invasive diagnostic tests and procedures to diagnose the disease. Early Diagnosis of cancer (when no symptoms are present) provides the best chance for a cure and some of the newly developed early diagnosis methods include:

  • Biomarker/ genetic test

  • Liquid biopsy tests

  • population-science based testing interventions

However, the commonly used diagnostic tests include:

  • Review of health history

  • Physical examination

  • Laboratory tests

  • Biopsy

  • Imaging tests

  • Nuclear medicine scans

  • Endoscopy

  • Genetic tests

  • Genomic tests

There are more than 120 types of cancer and related hereditary syndromes and each of them have their own risk factors, prevention, symptoms & signs, diagnosis, stages, treatment options, clinical trials, research, follow-up care, survivorship, etc. Cancers are generally classified by the type of cell that the tumour cells resemble and are named using carcinoma, sarcoma or blastoma. The most commonly diagnosed cancers include non-melanoma skin cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kidney cancer, leukaemia, pancreatic cancer, endometrial cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and sarcomas. However, the other types of cancers affect fewer people. 

  • Lung Cancer

  • Liver Cancer

  • Stomach Cancer

  • Colorectal Cancer

  • Breast Cancer

  • Oesophageal Cancer

  • Gynaecologic Cancers

  • Paediatric cancers

  • Blood cancers

  • Prostate Cancer

  • Bladder Cancer

  • Pancreatic Cancer

  • Head and Neck Cancer

  • Mouth cancer

  • Skin cancer

  • Throat cancer

  • Uterine cancer

  • Thyroid cancer

  • Brain cancer

  • Bone cancer

  • Gastrointestinal cancer

  • Genitourinary cancer

  • Other Malignant tumours

Numerous cancer treatment exists but, the treatment options will depend on several factors such as the type and stage of cancer, general health and the patient’s preferences. The goals of cancer treatment include:

  • To achieve a cure for cancer

  • To completely remove the cancer cells through primary treatment

  • To reduce the chance of cancer reoccurrence through adjuvant therapy

  • To help relieve the side effects of treatment through Palliative treatments

The primary cancer treatments generally include:

  • Surgery

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation therapy

  • Stem cell transplant

  • Immunotherapy

  • Hormone therapy

  • Targeted therapy

  • Angiogenesis inhibitors

  • Synthetic lethality

  • Other clinical trials

Cancer biomarkers are soluble factors that are secreted by cancer cells, altered proteins retained by cancer cells or mutated genes in the cancer cells. These biomarkers may be produced by the cancer tissue itself or by other cells in the body in response to cancer and can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumour tissue or other tissues or bodily fluids. One thing to be noted is that, these biomarkers are not only limited to cancer. These tumour markers are used in diagnosing cancer but, more importantly, they provide information on the prognosis of the cancer and helps the clinician in determining appropriate treatment.

Cancer biomarkers generally include:

  • Proteins

  • Gene mutations

  • Gene rearrangements

  • Extra copies of genes

  • Missing genes

  • Other molecules

  • Track 5-1Biomarkers that trigger cells to grow and multiply abnormally
  • Track 5-2Biomarkers that support a treatment’s cellular or molecular action
  • Track 5-3Biomarkers that disrupt a treatment’s cellular or molecular action

Nursing is a healthcare profession which serves as a backbone of healthcare provision in US. All the nurses deliver care through 5 simple steps and they are:

  • Assessment

  • Diagnosis

  • Outcomes / Planning

  • Implementation

  • Evaluation

Oncology nurses are specialized nurses who deliver care for cancer patients and these nurses require advanced certifications and clinical experiences in oncology so that they could meet various needs of the patients.

Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to a neoplasm. They are defined as clinical syndromes involving nonmetastatic systemic effects that accompany malignant disease. These set of signs and symptoms are due to the mass effect and not due to the local presence of cancer cells. These syndromes are collections of symptoms that result from substances that are produced by the tumour, and they occur remotely from the tumour itself where the symptoms may be:

  • Endocrine

  • Neuromuscular / musculoskeletal

  • Cardiovascular

  • Cutaneous

  • Hematologic

  • Gastrointestinal

  • Renal

  • Miscellaneous

  • Track 7-1Signs and Symptoms
  • Track 7-2Mechanism
  • Track 7-3Pathophysiological outcomes
  • Track 7-4Diagnosis
  • Track 7-5Treatment
  • Track 7-6Research

Cancer has a very complex pathophysiology. Modern day research has brought a drastic change in the pathology of cancers, especially, after the development of technologies like immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and molecular biologic approaches for diagnosis of cancer. Transformation of normal cells into cancer cells results in the formation of cancer and this process of transformation is called as carcinogenesis or oncogenesis or tumorigenesis which are characterized by the changes at cellular, genetic and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. The causes of carcinogenesis would generally involve:

  • Genetics

  • Epigenetics

  • DNA Damage

  • Genome instability

  • Field defects

  • Genomic amplification

  • Mutations

  • Translocation

  • Metastasis

  • Nonmainstream theories

Mechanism involved in carcinogenesis includes:

  • Oncogenes

  • Proto-oncogenes

  • Tumour suppressor genes

  • Multiple mutations

  • Non-mutagenic carcinogens

  • Infections

  • Epigenetics

  • Cancer stem cells

  • Clonal evolution

Cancer during pregnancy is generally rare, but, when it occurs it would be a great complication for the mother, the baby and the healthcare team. The most commonly occurring cancers during pregnancy includes:

  • Breast cancer

  • Cervical cancer

  • Thyroid cancer

  • Hodgkin lymphoma

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • Melanoma

  • Gestational trophoblastic tumour

  • Leukaemia

  • Colorectal cancer

The extremely rare cancers that occurs during pregnancy includes:

  • Lung cancer

  • Brain cancer

  • Bone cancer

The diagnosis part must be generally safe during pregnancy and it might include:

  • A low dose X-ray

  • CT Scan with proper protection

  • MRI

  • Ultrasound

  • Biopsy

  • Additional physical and lab tests

The cancer treatment depends on:

  • The type of cancer

  • Cancer location

  • Stage of cancer

  • How far along the patient is in pregnancy

  • Personal choices

However, the common treatment includes:

  • Surgery

  • Chemotherapy and other medicines

  • Radiation

  • Delay in treatment (after the baby is born)

As far as the research is concerned, no alternative medicine has cured cancer completely. However, it may help to cope with side effects of cancer and cancer treatment. Common signs and symptoms such as anxiety, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, difficulty in sleeping and stress may be reduced by alternative treatments. Some of the common alternative treatments include:

  • Acupuncture

  • Aromatherapy

  • Exercise

  • Hypnosis

  • Massage

  • Meditation

  • Music therapy

  • Relaxation techniques

  • Tai chi

  • Yoga

Paediatric oncology is one of the branches in medical specialities which involves research and treatment of cancers in children and young adults. Paediatric oncologists are medical professionals who specialize in treating infants, children, young adults and teenagers with cancer. Due to the fact that the childhood cancers and adult cancers are not the same, child cancer patients often receive different types of treatment than adult cancer patients since their bodies are growing and have unique medical needs.

  • Childhood cancers

  • Cancer diagnosis

  • Cancer treatment

  • Research

  • Alternative medicine

  • Control and prevention

Cancer pharmaceutical industries generally discover, develop, produce and market drugs that are specially made for cancer. Cancer drugs are developed to treat specific cancers and are approved for use after proper testing and trials. Some of the top pharma companies include Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., etc.

  • Cancer Drugs and vaccines

  • Research

  • Drug discovery and development

  • Drug delivery

  • Pharmacology

  • Ethnopharmacology

  • Toxicology

  • Pharmacogenomics

Immuno-oncology is an area of active research in the field cancer where the body uses its own immune system to fight against cancer which helps to address the unmet needs of patients with cancer. Normally, our immune system can recognize and destroy cancer cells in the body, however, sometimes cancer cells can adapt and mutate effectively hiding from the immune system. Immuno-oncology thus involves mobilising lymphocytes to recognise and eliminate cancer cells using the body’s immune system. 

  • Immunotherapy / Biological therapy

  • Classical immunology

  • Clinical immunology

  • Developmental immunology

  • Diagnostic immunology

  • Cancer immunology

  • Immune-oncology research

  • Upcoming immuno-oncology therapies

Case reports are detailed reports that has all the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of the patients. These case reports serve as an evidence for medicine, scientific and educational purposes.

Oncology is a field of medicine which is devoted to cancer. Clinical oncology has 3 primary disciplines which includes:

  • Medical Oncology

  • Surgical Oncology

  • Radiation Oncology

Medical oncology deals with the treatment of cancer with medicine, surgical oncology deals with the surgical aspects of cancer including biopsy, staging, and surgical resection of tumours and radiation oncology deals with the treatment of cancer with therapeutic radiation.

Cancer prevention is defined as active measures that are taken to reduce the risk of cancer. Not all cancers are preventable such as the cancers that are caused due to hereditary genetic disorders. More than 30% of cancer deaths could be prevented by avoiding tobacco, obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections and pollution. Scientists are studying different ways in which cancer can be prevented which includes:

  • Diet and lifestyle

  • Medications

  • Vaccinations

Cancer research is an area of research which helps to identify the causes of cancer and also helps to develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and cure. Cancer research ranges from:

  • Epidemiology

  • Molecular science

  • Clinical trials

  • Surgery

  • Biological therapy

  • Radiation therapy

  • Hormone therapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Combined modalities treatment

  • Gene therapy

  • Biotechnology research

  • Diagnosis

  • Treatment

  • Cure

  • Alternative medicine

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Prevention

  • Metabolomics

  • Other approaches

Veterinary medicine is a field which deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment diseases or disorders in animals. Veterinary Oncology is a special field in Veterinary medicine which deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Cancer in animals. Animals also suffer from similar type of Cancers like lymphoma, melanoma, bone cancer, mouth and throat cancer, breast cancer, liver and bile duct cancer, connective tissue cancer, etc as that of human. In fact, the Cancer research made in animals has helped a lot in making Cancer therapy trials in humans.