Pathophysiology of Cancer

Cancer has a very complex pathophysiology. Modern day research has brought a drastic change in the pathology of cancers, especially, after the development of technologies like immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and molecular biologic approaches for diagnosis of cancer. Transformation of normal cells into cancer cells results in the formation of cancer and this process of transformation is called as carcinogenesis or oncogenesis or tumorigenesis which are characterized by the changes at cellular, genetic and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. The causes of carcinogenesis would generally involve:

  • Genetics

  • Epigenetics

  • DNA Damage

  • Genome instability

  • Field defects

  • Genomic amplification

  • Mutations

  • Translocation

  • Metastasis

  • Nonmainstream theories

Mechanism involved in carcinogenesis includes:

  • Oncogenes

  • Proto-oncogenes

  • Tumour suppressor genes

  • Multiple mutations

  • Non-mutagenic carcinogens

  • Infections

  • Epigenetics

  • Cancer stem cells

  • Clonal evolution

Related Conference of Oncology & Cancer